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Shukla , D. and Patidar, A. and Sarma , U. and Chauhan, P. and Pandey, SP. and Chandel, HS. and Bodhale, N. and Ghosh , SK. and Guzman, CA. and Ebensen , T. and Silvestre, R. and Sarkar, A. and Saha , B. and Bhattacharjee, S. (2021) Interdependencies between Toll-like receptors in Leishmania infection. Immunology, 164 (1). pp. 173-189.

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Multiple pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on a pathogen's surface imply their simultaneous recognition by the host cell membrane-located multiple PAMP-specific Toll-like receptors (TLRs). The TLRs on endosomes recognize internalized pathogen-derived nucleic acids and trigger anti-pathogen immune responses aimed at eliminating the intracellular pathogen. Whether the TLRs influence each other's expression and effector responses-termed TLR interdependency-remains unknown. Herein, we first probed the existence of TLR interdependencies and next determined how targeting TLR interdependencies might determine the outcome of Leishmania infection. We observed that TLRs selectively altered expression of their own and of other TLRs revealing novel TLR interdependencies. Leishmania major-an intra-macrophage parasite inflicting the disease cutaneous leishmaniasis in 88 countries-altered this TLR interdependency unfolding a unique immune evasion mechanism. We targeted this TLR interdependency by selective silencing of rationally chosen TLRs and by stimulation with selective TLR ligands working out a novel phase-specific treatment regimen. Targeting the TLR interdependency elicited a host-protective anti-leishmanial immune response and reduced parasite burden. To test whether this observation could be used as a scientific rationale for treating a potentially fatal L. donovani infection, which causes visceral leishmaniasis, we targeted the inter-TLR dependency adopting the same treatment regimen. We observed reduced splenic Leishman-Donovan units accompanied by host-protective immune response in susceptible BALB/c mice. The TLR interdependency optimizes TLR-induced immune response by a novel immunoregulatory framework and scientifically rationalizes targeting TLRs in tandem and in sequence for redirecting immune responses against an intracellular pathogen.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Infection and Immunity
Depositing User: Mr. Rameshwar Nema
Date Deposited: 22 Nov 2021 10:10
Last Modified: 22 Nov 2021 10:10
URI: http://nccs.sciencecentral.in/id/eprint/1042

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