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Mandhania, M.H. and Paul, D. and Suryavanshi, M.V. and Sharma, L. and Chowdhury, S. and Diwanay, S.S. and Diwanay, S. and Shouche, Y.S. and Patole, M.S. (2019) Diversity and Succession of Microbiota during Fermentation of Traditional Indian Food Idli. Applied and Environmental Microbiology , 85 (13).

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Idli, a naturally fermented Indian food, is prepared from a mixture of rice and black gram (lentil). To understand its microbial community during fermentation, detailed analysis of the structural and functional dynamics of the idli microbiome was performed by culture-dependent and -independent approaches. The bacterial diversity and microbial succession were assessed at different times of fermentation by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Results highlighted that most microbiota belonged to phylum Firmicutes (70%) and Proteobacteria (22%). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis confirmed the diversity and succession involved therein. A culture-dependent approach revealed that the microbially diverse populations were conserved across different geographical locations. The fermentation was primarily driven by lactic acid bacteria as they constitute 86% of the total bacterial population, and genus Weissella emerged as the most important organism in fermentation. The natural microbiota of the grains mainly drives the fermentation, as surface sterilized grains did not show any fermentation. Growth kinetics of idli microbiota and physicochemical parameters corroborated the changes in microbial dynamics, acid production, and leavening occurring during fermentation. Using a metagenomic prediction tool, we found that the major metabolic activities of these microbial fermenters were augmented during the important phase of fermentation. The involvement of the heterofermentative hexose monophosphate (HMP) pathway in batter leavening was substantiated by radiolabeled carbon dioxide generated from d-[1-¹⁴C]-glucose. Hydrolases degrading starch and phytins and the production of B vitamins were reported. Moreover, culturable isolates showing beneficial attributes, such as acid and bile tolerance, hydrophobicity, antibiotic sensitivity, and antimicrobial activity, suggest idli to be a potential dietary supplement. IMPORTANCE This is a comprehensive analysis of idli fermentation employing modern molecular tools which provided valuable information about the bacterial diversity enabling its fermentation. The study has demonstrated the relationship between the bacterial population and its functional role in the process. The nature of idli fermentation was found to be more complex than other food fermentations due to the succession of the bacterial population. Further studies using metatranscriptomics and metabolomics may enhance the understanding of this complex fermentation process. Moreover, the presence of microorganisms with beneficial properties plausibly makes idli a suitable functional food.

Item Type: Article
Depositing User: Mr. Rameshwar Nema
Date Deposited: 20 Feb 2020 11:39
Last Modified: 20 Feb 2020 11:39
URI: http://nccs.sciencecentral.in/id/eprint/716

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