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Sonar, S.A. and Lal, G. (2019) Overview of Mechanisms Underlying Neuroimmune Diseases. In: Neuroimmune Diseases : Contemporary Clinical Neuroscience book series (CCNE). Springer , pp. 3-62.

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The neuroimmune diseases are caused by autoimmune demyelination, opportunistic and neurotrophic infections, paraneoplastic conditions, neurodegeneration, and neuropsychiatric disorders. These diseases are multifactorial, complex, and heterogeneous with varied clinical and pathological features and often triggered by the interplay of genetics, environmental factors, and dysregulated immune activation. The molecular mimicry of neuronal antigens, generation of onconeural antigens, inflammation-induced neuronal antigen release, and cross-presentation are thought to activate the autoreactive T and B lymphocytes. The activation of several innate immune pathways, generation of effector T cells, production of autoantibodies, inflamed blood-brain barrier, and activated microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neurons are known to contribute to the development of neuronal diseases. The majority of current research is focused on the genetic association, biomarker discovery, differential diagnosis, treatment choices, and identification of immunological and neurological basis of neuroimmune diseases. In this chapter, we discuss the clinical and pathological features of neuroimmune diseases and also present an overview of the current understanding of the immunological and neurological mechanisms. We also highlighted the cellular and molecular interactions in the generation of autoantibodies, inflammatory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, reactive microglia and astrocytes, and importance of the blood-brain barrier in neuroinflammation and autoimmunity.

Item Type: Book Section
Depositing User: Mr. Rameshwar Nema
Date Deposited: 21 Feb 2020 09:09
Last Modified: 21 Feb 2020 09:09
URI: http://nccs.sciencecentral.in/id/eprint/745

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