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Zutshi, S. and Kumar, S. and Chauhan, P. and Bansode, Y. and Nair, A. and Roy, S. and Sarkar, A. and Saha, B. (2019) Anti-Leishmanial Vaccines: Assumptions, Approaches, and Annulments. Vaccines (Basel), 7 (4).

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Leishmaniasis is a neglected protozoan parasitic disease that occurs in 88 countries but a vaccine is unavailable. Vaccination with live, killed, attenuated (physically or genetically) Leishmania have met with limited success, while peptide-, protein-, or DNA-based vaccines showed promise only in animal models. Here, we critically assess several technical issues in vaccination and expectation of a host-protective immune response. Several studies showed that antigen presentation during priming and triggering of the same cells in infected condition are not comparable. Altered proteolytic processing, antigen presentation, protease-susceptible sites, and intracellular expression of pathogenic proteins during Leishmania infection may vary dominant epitope selection, MHC-II/peptide affinity, and may deter the reactivation of desired antigen-specific T cells generated during priming. The robustness of the memory T cells and their functions remains a concern. Presentation of the antigens by Leishmania-infected macrophages to antigen-specific memory T cells may lead to change in the T cells’ functional phenotype or anergy or apoptosis. Although cells may be activated, the peptides generated during infection may be different and cross-reactive to the priming peptides. Such altered peptide ligands may lead to suppression of otherwise active antigen-specific T cells. We critically assess these different immunological issues that led to the non-availability of a vaccine for human use.

Item Type: Article
Depositing User: Mr. Rameshwar Nema
Date Deposited: 24 Feb 2020 11:07
Last Modified: 08 Dec 2021 12:11
URI: http://nccs.sciencecentral.in/id/eprint/767

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